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“故宫跑”的热情和虚火
2018年01月04日 14:47 来源:光明日报 作者:封寿炎 字号

内容摘要:近两年,百米冲刺争看文物的“故宫跑”,从故宫蔓延到众多的文物展出场馆和文艺演出现场。“排长队+冲刺跑”折射出大众对文化生活的井喷式需求,以及文化有效供给的不足。如果能够因势利导、引向深入,这种对文化生活的热情就会成为文化大发展大繁荣的先声。面对人们对文化生活的需要,当务之急是扩大供给,提供更多高品质、符合群众需要的文化艺术资源。对于文化的真正热情,不应该仅仅表现在热捧少数热门展览和文艺演出上,更应该是一种沉浸式的文化体验,是对于文化生活的全方位追求,使文化成为一种生活方式。当“故宫跑”转化为全社会对于文化生活的普遍热情和全面追求,文化艺术的繁荣就指日可待了。

关键词:故宫;文化生活;文物;博物馆;藏品;文艺演出;展览;大众传播;需要;供给

作者简介:

  近两年,百米冲刺争看文物的“故宫跑”,从故宫蔓延到众多的文物展出场馆和文艺演出现场。“排长队+冲刺跑”折射出大众对文化生活的井喷式需求,以及文化有效供给的不足。如果能够因势利导、引向深入,这种对文化生活的热情就会成为文化大发展大繁荣的先声。

  “故宫跑”的频繁出现当然是一件好事。在物质匮乏的年代,人们要为衣食住行排长队,奔波于各种各样的“白菜跑”“食盐跑”“酱油跑”,无暇照顾心灵和情感的需要。当衣食住行充裕丰足之后,文化生活的需要才会浮出水面。人们开始有时间、有精力去照顾自己的心灵和情感了,也才有能力、有体力进行“故宫跑”。

  盘点近几年的热门文化活动不难发现,“故宫跑”渐成常态。2015年《清明上河图》展览的最后一天,观众需要排队至少13个小时。今年《大英博物馆百物展》在北京和上海开展,两地最长排队时间都达三四个小时。《千里江山图》特展、上海百乐门开放、敦煌莫高窟、话剧《茶馆》和《窝头会馆》,都引发了一轮又一轮的排队热潮。

  面对人们对文化生活的需要,当务之急是扩大供给,提供更多高品质、符合群众需要的文化艺术资源。以故宫博物院为例,尽管目前的藏品展览增长了一倍,从过去的七八千件增至一万七八千件,但也仅仅展出了故宫全部藏品的1%左右。故宫99%的珍贵藏品仍然只能沉睡在库房里,无缘与大众见面。如何把丰富的文物资源、文化资源充分利用起来,以多种形式和途径满足人们的文化生活需要,是文化界面临的紧迫课题。

  当然,从另一方面看,我们对于“故宫跑”也要有全面冷静的判断。人们对文化生活的热情,是否真如新闻事件中呈现的那么迫切?这种热情有多少“虚火”的成分?怎样才能因势利导、深入挖掘,使人们对于一时、一地、一事的热情,转化为对文化生活持续、全面的热情?

  其实,细加推敲不难发现,一次又一次的“故宫跑”与其说是一个个文化事件,不如说是一个个大众传播事件。这些引发“故宫跑”的展览和文艺演出,在大众传播上都具备“爆点”因素,能够迅速启动信息链式传播,激发受众的好奇心和参与热情。举例来说,在《大英博物馆百物展》展出期间,冒着酷暑烈日排几个钟头长队的观众里面,很多人并不熟悉展品的情况,不了解它们在人类历史文化坐标上的重要位置和价值。他们只是充满了好奇,想看看从大英博物馆800多万件藏品中精选出来的展品,否则就“可惜了”。

  故宫博物院等一些热门博物馆机构固然门庭若市,但在全国范围内,大多数博物馆冷冷清清,很多珍贵藏品乏人问津。热门的书画作品集万千宠爱于一身,一些冷门的文物连基本的保护都成为难题。近两年,文物大省山西尝试引入企事业单位和社会资本,以解决大量文物资源保护乏力的难题。有明星、有知名IP的文艺演出一票难求,很多地方文艺院团、地方剧种、非物质文化项目却无人关注。

  对于文化的真正热情,不应该仅仅表现在热捧少数热门展览和文艺演出上,更应该是一种沉浸式的文化体验,是对于文化生活的全方位追求,使文化成为一种生活方式。如果人们具有广泛的阅读习惯,作家、诗人群体就能成长起来。如果人们习惯于安排一部分生活支出用来购买画家画作装饰家居,那么一些不知名的画家就能获得生存空间,未来的画坛巨擘就有可能由此起步。到戏院看戏,去音乐厅听音乐,进电影院看电影,在美术馆、博物馆看展览,这些如果成为人们日常生活的必备项目,整个文化艺术领域就能日益活跃,得到发展繁荣的源头活水。

  文化成为全社会的时尚谈资,说明在人们认同的价值体系里,文化代表着一种更高、更美好的价值。这种对于文化的热情、追求和向往弥足珍贵。但另一方面,在人们的日常生活中,还存在着大量缺乏审美能力和文化素养的现象。在社交媒体上,每天都在热传一些反常识、反文化的养生偏方和小道谣言。两相对照,更足以说明要对这种“文化热情”因势利导,将之引向深入、做细做实。当“故宫跑”转化为全社会对于文化生活的普遍热情和全面追求,文化艺术的繁荣就指日可待了。

  (作者:封寿炎)

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CSSN-Characteristics of new global communication order
CONTACT US Wed Nov. 13, 2013

.  >  RESEARCH  >  JOURNALISM

Characteristics of new global communication order

Author  :  Zhong Xin     Source  :    Chinese Social Sciences Today     2015-04-09

Today’s new order of world communication is obviously influenced by non-Western media, non-traditional media and non-state actors, unlike the old order of world communication that was dominated by Western media, state actors and traditional media.

Participation of multiple subjects

The rise of non-Western media is changing the environment for world opinion, which used to be dominated by Western media. In recent years, some scholars have called the rise of non-Western media, such as Al Jazeera, Russia Today and CCTV News, as “The Rise of the Rest.” These emerging international media outlets cover different regions of the world, providing news and information from non-Western perspectives. They are attracting strong ratings and increasingly promoting their influence worldwide.

By the end of 2014, the number of CCTV News viewers had reached 387 million, 37 million more than 2013. The network was broadcast in more than 170 countries and regions. Russia Today is well known for its fresh, bold news reportage and has far exceeded other foreign media outlets in ratings growth. Founded in 1996, Al Jazeera covers various regions in the world with multiple languages and channels. It offers news with a unique Arabian perspective and has gradually won Westerners’ trust through its strategic balanced reporting. It has also generated significant advertising revenue due to its ratings and influence in some regions.

The rise of non-traditional media has made it possible for multiple subjects to participate in international communication. Social media has provided convenience for exchanges and interaction between institutions and individuals. For example, smartphones have made it easy for people to communicate with each other across various platforms. The Internet and social media have broken the boundary between domestic and international transmission, creating a global communication environment.

Non-state actors such as enterprises, non-governmental organizations and individuals are committed to building self-media and actively participate in global communication, promoting their global development strategies. Transnational enterprises resulting from economic globalization require multiple channels to carry out integrated marketing communication and enterprise brand construction. Non-governmental organizations need to mobilize the public to take part in their concepts. Individuals participate in production and dissemination of information to achieve their own goals.

Overall, state and non-state actors depend on traditional and non-traditional media to spread information to the world and interact with the international public, resulting in the new normal of global communication order.

New public diplomacy

The development of communication technology has generated new public diplomacy. Comprised of newspapers, books and periodicals, radio and TV, the traditional media environment was characterized by one-way vertical transmission. The government representing state actors spread information to the foreign public through international broadcasts and cultural exchanges to influence their cognition, attitude and behavior. This was the former model for public diplomacy.

New public diplomacy takes place in the new media environment where there is two-way horizontal transmission. State and non-state actors, such as the government, media, enterprises, non-governmental organizations and individuals provide information for foreigners through online or offline channels to influence their cognition, attitude and behavior.

Public diplomacy theoretical modes proposed by Ali Fisher, one of the top analysts of public diplomacy, contain cultural diplomacy and exchanges. Joseph Nye Jr., a scholar of soft power and